A draft sequence of the Trichomonas genome was published on January 12, 2007 in the journal Science confirming that the genome has at least 26,000 genes, a similar number to the human genome. An additional ~35,000 unconfirmed genes, including thousands that are part of potentially transposable elements, brings the gene content to well over 60,000.[16]
Currently there are no routine standard screening requirements for the general U.S. population receiving family planning or STI testing.[24][25] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends Trichomoniasis testing for females with vaginal discharge[26] and can be considered for females at higher risk for infection or of HIV-positive serostatus.[24]
Evidence from a randomized controlled trials for screening pregnant women who do not have symptoms for infection with trichomoniasis and treating women who test positive for the infection have not consistently shown a reduced risk of preterm birth.[29][30] Further studies are needed to verify this result and determine the best method of screening. In the US, screening of pregnant women without any symptoms is only recommended in those with HIV as trichomonas infection is associated with increased risk of transmitting HIV to the fetus.[31]
Trichomoniasis (trich) infection is spread when you have sex with an infected partner. Many women and most men do not have any symptoms of trich. If symptoms appear, they usually start within 1 week after a person is infected. But it may take up to a month for symptoms to appear. In most cases, trich should be treated to prevent transmitting this sexually transmitted infection (STI) to others and to prevent some problems that can happen if you are pregnant. You and your sex partner(s) should be treated for trich at the same time, to avoid reinfecting each other.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. STDs in men cause no symptoms or symptoms like genital burning, itching, sores, rashes, or discharge. Common infections that are sexually transmitted in men include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital herpes. Some STDs in men are treatable while others are not. STDs are diagnosed with tests that identify proteins or genetic material of the organisms causing the infection. The prognosis of an STD depends on whether the infection is treatable or not. Use of latex condoms can help reduce the risk of contracting an STD but it does not eliminate the risk entirely.
^ Epstein, Aaron; Roy, Subir (2010). "Chapter 50: Vulvovaginitis". In Goodwin, T. Murphy (ed.). Management of Common Problems in Obstetrics and Gynecology (5th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 228. ISBN 978-1405169165. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. In 80% of cases, the diagnosis of trichomoniasis is confirmed by microscopic examination of saline wet mount, with the observation of motile trichominondas; their shape is "football-like" with moving flagella.
Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition with signs and symptoms of vaginal discharge, vaginal odor, and vaginal pain. Bacterial vaginosis results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. Although it may cause some disturbing symptoms (discharge and odor), it is not dangerous and cannot be passed by sex. Diagnosis becomes important to exclude serious infections like gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Many treatment options are available such as oral antibiotics and vaginal gels.
Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition with signs and symptoms of vaginal discharge, vaginal odor, and vaginal pain. Bacterial vaginosis results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. Although it may cause some disturbing symptoms (discharge and odor), it is not dangerous and cannot be passed by sex. Diagnosis becomes important to exclude serious infections like gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Many treatment options are available such as oral antibiotics and vaginal gels.

Evidence from a randomized controlled trials for screening pregnant women who do not have symptoms for infection with trichomoniasis and treating women who test positive for the infection have not consistently shown a reduced risk of preterm birth.[29][30] Further studies are needed to verify this result and determine the best method of screening. In the US, screening of pregnant women without any symptoms is only recommended in those with HIV as trichomonas infection is associated with increased risk of transmitting HIV to the fetus.[31]


The advent of new, highly specific and sensitive trichomoniasis tests present opportunities for new screening protocols for both men and women.[24][27] Careful planning, discussion, and research are required to determine the cost-efficiency and most beneficial use of these new tests for the diagnosis and treatment of trichomoniasis in the U.S., which can lead to better prevention efforts.[24][27]
Use condoms. Condoms are the best way to prevent STIs when you have sex. Because a man does not need to ejaculate (come) to give or get trichomoniasis, make sure to put the condom on before the penis touches the vagina, mouth, or anus. Other methods of birth control, like birth control pills, shots, implants, or diaphragms, will not protect you from STIs. Get tested. Be sure you and your partner are tested for STIs. Talk to each other about the test results before you have sex.
^ Munson E, Kramme T, Napierala M, Munson KL, Miller C, Hryciuk JE (December 2012). "Female epidemiology of transcription-mediated amplification-based Trichomonas vaginalis detection in a metropolitan setting with a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infection". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 50 (12): 3927–31. doi:10.1128/JCM.02078-12. PMC 3503002. PMID 23015673.
For 95-97% of cases, infection is resolved after one dose of metronidazole.[26][35] Studies suggest that 4-5% of trichomonas cases are resistant to metronidazole, which may account for some “repeat” cases.[33][9] Without treatment, trichomoniasis can persist for months to years in women, and is thought to improve without treatment in men.[9] Women living with HIV infection have better cure rates if treated for 7 days rather than with one dose.[31][36]
^ Epstein, Aaron; Roy, Subir (2010). "Chapter 50: Vulvovaginitis". In Goodwin, T. Murphy (ed.). Management of Common Problems in Obstetrics and Gynecology (5th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 228. ISBN 978-1405169165. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. In 80% of cases, the diagnosis of trichomoniasis is confirmed by microscopic examination of saline wet mount, with the observation of motile trichominondas; their shape is "football-like" with moving flagella.
^ Jump up to: a b Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, Carter A, et al. (GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators) (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
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