A draft sequence of the Trichomonas genome was published on January 12, 2007 in the journal Science confirming that the genome has at least 26,000 genes, a similar number to the human genome. An additional ~35,000 unconfirmed genes, including thousands that are part of potentially transposable elements, brings the gene content to well over 60,000.[16]
The advent of new, highly specific and sensitive trichomoniasis tests present opportunities for new screening protocols for both men and women.[24][27] Careful planning, discussion, and research are required to determine the cost-efficiency and most beneficial use of these new tests for the diagnosis and treatment of trichomoniasis in the U.S., which can lead to better prevention efforts.[24][27]
^ Jump up to: a b Nye MB, Schwebke JR, Body BA (February 2009). "Comparison of APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis transcription-mediated amplification to wet mount microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in men and women". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 200 (2): 188.e1–7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.10.005. PMID 19185101.
There were about 58 million cases of trichomoniasis in 2013.[38] It is more common in women (2.7%) than males (1.4%).[39] It is the most common non-viral STI in the U.S., with an estimated 3.7 million prevalent cases and 1.1 million new cases per year.[40][41] It is estimated that 3% of the general U.S. population is infected,[21][42] and 7.5-32% of moderate-to-high risk (including incarcerated) populations.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]
Trichomoniasis (trich) is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.[2] About 70% of women and men do not have symptoms when infected.[2] When symptoms do occur they typically begin 5 to 28 days after exposure.[1] Symptoms can include itching in the genital area, a bad smelling thin vaginal discharge, burning with urination, and pain with sex.[1][2] Having trichomoniasis increases the risk of getting HIV/AIDS.[1] It may also cause complications during pregnancy.[1]
Most people infected with Trichomonas vaginalis do not have any symptoms and can be undetected for years.[6] Symptoms experienced include pain, burning or itching in the penis, urethra (urethritis), or vagina (vaginitis). Discomfort for both sexes may increase during intercourse and urination. For women there may also be a yellow-green, itchy, frothy, foul-smelling ("fishy" smell) vaginal discharge. In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear within 5 to 28 days of exposure.[7] Sometimes trichomoniasis can be confused with chlamydia because the symptoms are similar.[8]

Use of male condoms or female condoms may help prevent the spread of trichomoniasis,[22] although careful studies have never been done that focus on how to prevent this infection. Infection with Trichomoniasis through water is unlikely because Trichomonas vaginalis dies in water after 45–60 minutes, in thermal water after 30 minutes to 3 hours and in diluted urine after 5–6 hours.[23]
Use condoms. Condoms are the best way to prevent STIs when you have sex. Because a man does not need to ejaculate (come) to give or get trichomoniasis, make sure to put the condom on before the penis touches the vagina, mouth, or anus. Other methods of birth control, like birth control pills, shots, implants, or diaphragms, will not protect you from STIs. Get tested. Be sure you and your partner are tested for STIs. Talk to each other about the test results before you have sex.
The first is known as saline microscopy. This is the most commonly used method and requires an endocervical, vaginal, or penile swab specimen for examination under a microscope.[17] The presence of one or multiple trichomonads constitutes a positive result. This method is cheap but has a low sensitivity (60-70%) often due to an inadequate sample, resulting in false negatives.[18][19]
People who have been treated for trichomoniasis can get it again. About 1 in 5 people get infected again within 3 months after receiving treatment. To avoid getting reinfected, all sex partners should get treated with antibiotics at the same time. Wait to have sex again until everyone has been treated and any symptoms go away (usually about a week). Get checked at 3 months to make sure you have not been infected again, or sooner if your symptoms come back before then.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. STDs in men cause no symptoms or symptoms like genital burning, itching, sores, rashes, or discharge. Common infections that are sexually transmitted in men include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital herpes. Some STDs in men are treatable while others are not. STDs are diagnosed with tests that identify proteins or genetic material of the organisms causing the infection. The prognosis of an STD depends on whether the infection is treatable or not. Use of latex condoms can help reduce the risk of contracting an STD but it does not eliminate the risk entirely.

^ Jump up to: a b Ginocchio CC, Chapin K, Smith JS, Aslanzadeh J, Snook J, Hill CS, Gaydos CA (August 2012). "Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification assay". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 50 (8): 2601–8. doi:10.1128/JCM.00748-12. PMC 3421522. PMID 22622447.

The advent of new, highly specific and sensitive trichomoniasis tests present opportunities for new screening protocols for both men and women.[24][27] Careful planning, discussion, and research are required to determine the cost-efficiency and most beneficial use of these new tests for the diagnosis and treatment of trichomoniasis in the U.S., which can lead to better prevention efforts.[24][27]
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